Even without criminalisation, the situation for non-heteronormative people in Poland has remained difficult for decades due to the domination of the Catholic Church. With the right-wing Law & Justice party’s ascent to power in recent years, the threats have intensified, but so has the fight-back.

Read more about how church and state have colluded to restrict the rights of LGBTQIA+ Poles and how they have organised in solidarity to protect themselves in our explainer.

text by Adam Pakulski.